For the past 7 decades, Japan has developed into an advanced economy with government-industry cooperation, strong work ethic and high technology. Growth of Japanese economy slowed down in the 1990s due to inefficient investment and an asset price bubble in the late 1980s. Modest economic growth continued after 2000, but the economy has fallen into stagnation four times since 2008. Thanks to three policies of the minister Abe's economics, including monetary easing, “flexible” fiscal policy, and structural reform, Japanese economy saw a rise in 2013. In October 2015, Japan and 11 trading partners reached agreement on the Trans-Pacific Partnership, promising to open Japan's economy to increased foreign competition and create new export opportunities for Japanese businesses and since then Japanese economy has been experiencing a slow but constant rebound.
Vending machines are everywhere in Japan and right now there are 5.4 million machines all over this country, selling nearly all the everyday life necessities. There are some reasons why they are so successful in Japan. First of all, vending machines are a reflection of the pace of Japanese society today for people today are busy on the go and convenience and fast service are attractive. Secondly, buying things from vending machines saves Japanese from dealing with a shop assistant and putting 100 yen into a machine makes them feel more comfortable because in Japan every social encounter involves obligation and ritual. Finally, marketers from different industries such as beverage companies and tobacco companies make changes to embrace the development of high-technology, which is the trend of modern society.
Foreign companies have to do research into the consuming needs and habits of Japanese customers in order to expand their business in Japan. There are some important aspects foreign companies need to take into account. First of all, they should ensure good quality as Japanese customers often pay great attention to quality of products. Secondly, they should imitate the products of Japanese companies and try to package and label their products in the Japanese style, which is colorful and attractive. Thirdly, they should ensure prompt delivery of products and also after-sale services and quality guarantee as these are an important of the consuming experiences of customers. Finally, while giving Japanese customers a sense of good quality and familiarity foreign companies must also seek novelty and distinct their products in a positive way from Japan-made products to first of all attract customers' attention.
The business practices and rules of competition are not so unique compared to western countries. The business practices in Japan is the most frequently searched item in Google for business related to Japan. Politeness and good matters are not different from western countries but the difference lies in that the business etiquette in Japan is more formal and at the first business meeting there are formal introductions and ritualistic exchange of business cards. Besides, doing business with Japanese companies often involves lengthy negotiations between different parties and Japanese companies place great value on long-term relations with customers and with business partners. Finally, Japanese businesses may not be direct in their communications and often foreign companies have to struggle with the implicit and vague communications and agreements. Rules of competition in Japan can be divided into two aspects, those in competitive sector and those in non-competitive sector. In competitive sector, companies pay great attention to the product quality, prompt delivery of products, advertisement and innovation. In non-competitive sector, Japanese businesses value strategic alliances and partnerships with other companies.
Besides the business practices and rules of competition, Japanese and western production promotion strategies also differ in some ways. First of all, Japanese promotion strategies convey often indirect messages while western ones convey direct messages. Secondly, Japanese advertisements tend to make minimal relationship between content and the advertised products while western advertisements make clear relationship between the two aspects. Thirdly, Japanese advertisements often feature brief monologues and narration of commercial content while western ones feature dialogues between different characters in the advertisements. Finally, one prominent aspect of Japanese product promotion lies in the humor in the advertisements which are applied to generate mutual feelings.
The Japanese way of developing new products has become a new competitive strategy. Japanese companies are market driven when developing