这是我们在2017年为澳洲墨尔本市维多利亚大学的客户创作的一篇医学essay，以Use of PrEP in HIV prevention
What arehuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its global impacts?为题来分析，开篇introduction介绍研究问题的背景information，我们节选了这一个部分分享给大家。
As a major global public health issue, HIVvirus makes the infected individuals extremely vulnerable by destroying theirbody’s immune system andfinally causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS) with high mortality rate (Lozano et al., 2012).Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, there are more than 70 million individuals having been infected and about half of them have died due to HIV(Stein et al., 2016).The reported HIV new cases alsocontinueto growin recent data.By the end of 2015, a total of approximately 36.7million[34.0million -- 39.8million]individualswerebeing infected by HIV throughout the world, which was 2.7 million higher than the numbers estimated in 2012(World Health Organization, 2012).Around 2.7 million individuals became HIV-positive virus carriersin 2010(World Health Organization, 2012). In 2015, 1.1 million [0.94 million -- 1.3 million]individuals died from HIVand AIDS worldwide.In Australia,the annual number of new people being diagnosedwith HIV increased by 10% in 2012 comparing to the numbers only one year ago(Australian Government Department of Health, 2014).
Unsafe sex behaviour without a condom, sharing needles no matter for what purpose and newborns getting from their mothers (in some cases during childbirth or breastfeeding) are three common ways by which the HIV is spread. HIV could also be spread through oral sex and needle injuriesin some but rare cases.In Australia,the majority of individuals with diagnosed HIV infection are males who have unprotected sexual activities with males, meanwhile, around 25% of those with diagnosed HIV infectionwere through the heterosexual relationships between men and womenin 2012.
The symptoms of HIV are differentfrom individual to individual and depending on the stages of illness including the early stage, the clinical latency stage and AIDS. Mostindividuals living with HIV are more likely to experience being infectious within the first few weeks, there are still many peopleunaware until later stages. Some individuals even do not have any symptoms for years until the illness progresses to AIDS. Within the first 14 to 28days after being infectedinitially, some individuals may have no symptoms at all orexperience a flu-likesymptoms including night sweats, fatigue,chills ormuscle aches.However, if have had unprotected sex before,the only way to know for sure of diagnosed HIV is to see the doctor and get tested.
There is no cure for HIV infection so far. Fortunately, numbers of HIV prevention methods are availablewith promising results for slowing the spread of the HIV, such askeeping the safe sexual activities (like using condoms) and taking antiretroviral drugs. The antiretroviral drugs are introduced to help control the transmission of HIV virus so that the lives of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected .