這是我們在2017年代寫的一篇美國歷史essay範文，客戶來自美國新澤西州新澤西理工大學，這篇essay是歷史類的，題目是Worlds Together, World Apart副標題是A Comparative Analysis of the Main Concerns of the Mongol, Chinese and Indian Rulers upon Raising and Equipping their Troops in the Age of Mongols這篇essay的要求是對蒙古、中國和印度統治者在蒙古時代提高部隊裝備的主要問題進行比較分析，開頭首先是introduction的介紹，這個部分最重要的是語句精鍊，言簡意賅，層次分明，我們的開頭是這樣寫的：
Only when armed forces, as the gatekeeper of the national interests, are consistently strengthened and consolidated, a nation or a society can gain the basic rights of existence and development. Therefore, all societies rulers will attach their great importance to the military construction so as to make it be accommodated with the different social systems, national ideologies as well as interests of the ruling elites through finding their own ways of conscripting, raising, equipping, organizing and fielding their armies. The age of Mongols witnessed the Asian nomads’ iron power and glory days in reign of Genghis Khan who once conducted his horsemen of Mongolia to ruthlessly invade nearly all of the civilized core centers (except for India) from the East Europe to the North Korea and build the vastest and unique Afro-Eurasia imperial, which makes the influence of the Mongols become the commonality deserving more people to make a further research. Based on mobilizing for war in the age of the Mongols, the purpose of this paper mainly focuses upon studying the differences and similarities of the Mongol, Chinese, Indian rulers upon their army building and further discuss how these societies motivated and disciplined their troops.
At first, led by Genghis Khan who was good at using the advantages of nomadic people that differing from the settled civilization of Chinese rulers who would like to , nomads showed its strong openness and freedom and organized an invincible solid group, Mongol army gradually formed the spiffy, strict and unique military system. When they suffered sneak attack or major military offensive, their action speed was very rapid like a hurricane sweeping the sea-bad with great power and execution; while in the peace time, soldiers were more than common people to participate in the production life to yield milk or wool or farm being liable to make more contributions without any complaints, which to some extent saved more labor forces, accumulated social fortune and maximized their resources. All of them would become warriors and caught their arms to protect their lands with strong loyalty awareness. Meanwhile, the equality in the military, the strict system of awards and punishments were also its great undertakings. For example, commanders could be selected from soldiers based upon their personal talents and outstanding performance who own the absolute authority of their armies, enjoyed the strict supervision and control and obeyed their military orders at any time and in any place, which has already exceeded other military organizations at the middle ages.
While compared with the Mongol army equipped with obvious nomadic characteristics, the Chinese rulers like Song Dynasty were unwilling to raise high-quality horses and strengthen professional soldiers’ training. On the contrary, due to insufficient taxation, the Chinese rulers struggled in the defense and defense costs. For example, reformers preferred to reduce their dependence upon the professional soldiers and would like to rely on the conscription to recruit the common people to become officers and soldiers, which to some extent made them get rid of the original social productive activities but only replied upon the financial supports of the Song government. And meanwhile, conscription also caused the serious issues of superflous troops and inequality in the military, which finally made the enrolled soldiers became robbers, especially after the famine. On one hand, more “wrong” people who did not experience strict selection became the soldiers, which was no doubt to weaken the military battle power; on the other hand, the military system of awards and punishments were not as strict as the Mongol troops, especially the officers were rewarded not depended on their military industry but because of their recruitment, which finally led that the army lost its assault forces and failed in the wars.
And like the Mongol rulers and Chinese rulers, the Indian rulers also emphasized the caliber of their soldiers. Meanwhile, in order to defend the invasion of the Mongol military, the Indian rulers also like Song Dynasty to provide the financial supports for the large army expenses. However, different from the Song’s conscription, the Indian rulers devoted themselves to building a large forces from those well mounted and well armed men who were good at archery. Once a large force built, they would like to permanently maintain it on allowances, equipment, as well as subsistence for soldiers’ wife and families, which not only brought them the cheapest grains but also brought them a sense of honor. Therefore, so many Mongol soldiers were trampled to death by elephant and army of Islam final won the victory.
To sum up, all of the Mongol, Chinese and Indian rulers were engaged in the military construction but still showed their differences in the ways of raising, feeding and equipping their armies. Mongol army showed their unique nomadic characteristics with more freedom, equality and strong loyalty awareness to make them invincible; the Chinese rulers considered their insufficient taxation to implement the conscription to reduce the professional training of soldiers and battle forces, which did not contribute to military building; and the Indian rulers fully respected the willingness of soldiers to achieve the cheapness of all necessaries to inspire more armed forces, which finally defended their lands. All of those military measures are of great significance and deserve to be remembered by the later generation.