這是我們2017年為英國利物浦大學的客戶創作的一篇環境科學essay，以Smog and Haze in China為題，開篇Introduction主要介紹文章的主題，讓讀者了解文章的主要內容。
In contemporary China, smog and haze are the severe phenomenon caused by air pollution in many Chinese metropolises. Smog and haze are formed by airborne particles, which can seriously threaten human’s health after being breathed in. More seriously, climate change is tightly linked to Chinese smog and haze, and is making this situation more and more terrible. In 2013, Keqiang Li, the prime minister of Chinese government, advocated that Chinese government would spare no effort to take action to decrease the smog and haze. From then on, treating smog and haze is a routine issue in Chinese National People Congress. However, smog and haze are still getting more and more seriously in recent two years and their influencing area is expanding from northern China to middle and even southern China. Actually, even among the Chinese seriously affected by smog and haze, no one doubts Chinese government’s capacity on solving this issue, because people have found at least two times that Chinese government totally clear smog and haze up in Beijing. The first time is 2007 winter, when the Olympic game is coming up in the nest year’s summer. Exactly, from the end of 2006 to the end of 2008, smog and haze is almost disappeared in Beijing. However, during 2008 to 2013, smog and haze came back and got much more terrible than before. Media and residents began to doubt Chinese government’s attitude to smog and haze, but not its capacity. In 2014, APEC was held in Beijing and during the APEC period, smog and haze was totally cleared in Beijing again. Even though the Chairman Xi responded the doubts at the opening ceremony of APEC and said that he hoped the smog and haze will forever disappear in Beijing, this frustrated phenomenon appeared again one week after the APEC closing ceremony. Through analyzing both the potential development benefits and adverse environmental influences brought by industrialization and urbanization, and reviewing existing governmental policies and implementations towards air pollution regulation, this essay argues that in China, though the central government determines to solve the issues of smog and haze through policy control, many of local governments and companies would not like to sacrifice their economic benefits for getting clear air.
Though the specific mechanism of winter haze is still controversial, it has been widely recognized that industrial emissions, coal heating and automotive exhaust are the major sources for current air pollution in China. As summarized by Wang and Lin (2010), that majority of China’s air pollution sources in urban areas are related to the energy sectors of the industrial development, urbanization and traffic. On the other hand, the intensified energy requirements and increased pollutant emissions from the sectors of industry, heating and vehicles also connect closely with China’s rapid development pace. China has already becomes the “world’s factory” with the world’s largest aggregation of manufacturing factories. A significant amount of daily supplies are produced in the country and exported to the global market, in order to satisfy the world’s demand. Since 2013, China has already taken the position of the United States and become the world’s biggest trader in goods (Anderlini and Hornby, 2014). The industrial growth has promoted the economic development of China. From 1960 to 2015, the GDP per capital in China has roared from $89.5 to $8,069.2 (The World Bank, 2017). And in 2010, China became the second largest economy in terms of GDP of the whole world (Fang et al., 2015).
China benefits from the rapid economic and social development brought by industrialization and urbanization. However, at the meanwhile, industrialization and urbanization rely significantly on energy consumption of coal. Those processes lead to the significant emissions of air pollutants from the operation of coal-fired power stations, the urbanized lifestyles and also the soaring number of private automobile. The country is suffering from the severe air pollution issues such as smog and haze. Though the central government determines to reduce the number of coal-fired power stations and to promote the transformation from the reliance on dirty coal to cleaner energy and technologies, those strategies are hard to be implemented effectively at local level due to the potential economic and political loss brought by the halting of ongoing constructions and the extra financial costs for technology upgrading.