這是我們在2017年為美國紐約大學的學弟學妹們寫的一篇歷史essay，首先開頭部分的introduction介紹文章背景信息，馬丁路德金主張通過在20世紀50年代到60年代在美國解決黑人公民權的非暴力抵制，為改善黑人困境做出巨大貢獻。 他也是20世紀美國公民權利的象徵。 他出色的領導能力和表達性的演講為1964年美國的民權法案做出了貢獻。 他的非暴力抵抗思想是追求平等和人類歷史自由的民權運動的指導思想，對公民不服從的發展產生了非常深遠的影響。 本文將證明金的非暴力抵抗如何為抵制社會不公和成功提供了一個有效的工具。
Martin Luther King advocated that by the non violent resistance to solve the civil rights of blacks in the United States in the 1950s to 1960s, making great contributions to improvement on the plight of blacks (Howard-Pitney 23). He was also a symbol of the the civil rights in United States in 20th Century (Howard-Pitney 23). His excellent leadership skills and expressive speech had contributed to the civil rights act of 1964 in the United States. His idea of non violent resistance was a guiding ideology of the civil rights movement in the pursuit of equality and freedom of human history, and the development of civil disobedience had a very far-reaching impact. This paper will prove how King’s nonviolent resistance offered an effective tool for combating social injustice and succeeded.
The religious origin of King's non violent resistance determined that the desire for good and the break with the evil were the basic personal obligations. As king pointed out that refusing to associate with the evil was also a moral duty, just like walking with the good (Howard-Pitney 54). This led to the fact that people were in a dilemma of obedience and disobedience because it was a personal obligation to obey the good and oppose to the evil. Therefore, how to distinguish between justice and injustice became a key issue. King answered this question from two aspects, including substantive justice and procedural justice. For the substantive justice, the good law was consistent with the moral law and God's law, which was contrary to them was the evil law. The policy or the law of segregation was undoubtedly an evil law that violated the law of God and the law of morality. For the procedural justice, the evil law reflected the inequality between majority and minority, because the legislative procedure excluding the minority was not a genuine democracy, so the evil law was a tool that abused power to oppress the minority. For laws that violated the law of God, or the law of morality, or the laws against democratic procedures, were unjust laws, so no one should obey them.
All in all, this paper had proved King’s nonviolent resistance offered an effective tool for combating social injustice and succeeded. The religious origin of King's non violent resistance determined that the desire for good and the break with the evil were the basic personal obligations. Non violent rebellion was the new choice on the basis of the acquiesce and violence, which was neither a submission to evil or injustice, nor was a violent attempt to eradicate it. Non violent resistance was to awaken people's moral emotion and formed the consensus of justice rather than the apparent victory or humiliation for the opponent. The strategies for resistance were voluntary suffering without retaliation and avoiding external physical violence and inner spiritual violence. No matter how right the purpose was, it could not prove the justification of unjust violence. Thus, nonviolent resistance offered an effective tool for combating social injustice and succeeded.