這是我們在2017年為加拿大多倫多大學的學妹寫的一篇culture essay的範文，首先在開頭部分用introduction的方式來介紹文章的相關背景信息，首先解釋了“文化”這個詞源自拉丁語 - “Cultus”，它是指從種植中獲得的東西。它最初有兩種含義，其中包括教堂和教堂文化。
The word “culture” is derived from the Latin language － “Cultus”, which refers to something obtained from cultivation. At the very beginning, it contains two kinds of meanings, including cultus deorum and cultus agori. The former represents to cultivate for worship, while the latter means to cultivate for living. Something other than culture indicates products of the natural world. Hence, in general, “culture” refers to all things made and obtained by human beings through work.
In 1865, Edward Burnett Tylor first created the word “culture” in his work. Six years later, he defined the culture in Primitive culture that it is a complex whole of knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, law, customs, as well as social members’ abilities and habits (Tylor, 1871). And this is regarded as the classic definition of culture. Since the twentieth century, culture’s meanings has become increasingly complicated. And an important trend of understanding culture is to regard it as a systematic integration of different aspects. And its various definitions could be summarized into six categories, including descriptive, historic, normative, psychological, structural and inheritable definitions.
This essay tries to explain what is culture from three aspects, including its definitions, features and forms. It divides the definitions into different categories, and then explores their common element, so as to understand the meanings of culture comprehensively. Then, this essay discusses the general features of culture, for having a better understanding of culture’s inner characteristics. Finally, it emphasizes four forms of culture, including the economic system, social institutionalization, social ideology and criteria of values, which together constitute a integrated cultural system.