Culture cannot be defined easily since it origins from life and is always remodeled. However, Raymond Williams gave a reasonable definition of culture, which was different from other culture definitions at that time. Moreover, he found some scholars like Leavis dividing culture into two parts: one is elite culture for bourgeois intellectuals; one is mass culture for the working classes. However, in his opinion, culture is ordinary. Williams was born in a labor family and very familiars of the life in the bottom of society. He came from the countryside, and then went to the University of Cambridge to study. By analyzing Marxism, Williams has given the new meanings to mass, he also provided two pieces of evidences that culture is not a privilege for the elite anymore.
Body部分通過更多的材料分析來證明論點，首先，威廉斯在“文化分析”中定義了三種文化。 第一個是理想的，第二個是紀錄片，第三個是社交的。 “理想文化”是人類完美的遊行。 “紀錄片文化”是富有想象力和智力的工作。 “社會文化”是一種特殊的生活方式，它不僅代表了學術和藝術的價值，也代表了日常行為的價值。
First of all, there are three kinds of culture in Williams’ definition in The Analysis of Culture. The first is ideal, the second is documentary and the third is social. “Ideal culture” is a procession of human perfection. “Documentary culture” is imaginative and intellectual work. “Social culture” is a special life style, which represents not only the value of academic and arts, but also the value in ordinary behavior. He emphasizes culture is from society and life, which is not abstract concept and elite’s halo. Labors are a part of society, so they contribute to contents of culture, especially the social culture.
William gave two evidences that culture was ordinary and shared by all social classes. On the one hand, all classes were shared and benefited from the developments of culture. People lived in farming valleys enjoyed the achievements and marks of the industrial revolution. For example, the petrol engine, steam power, electricity and other things like clean water and canned food. Labors were evolved in the developments. On the other hand, cultures were influenced by ordinary people. Williams disagreed of the false equation that the popular culture guided bad minds and feelings to the customers, especially to the labors. He said there were lots of good men and labors could distinguish some terrifying and moronic from the right and positive views. This showed they couldn’t be evaluated as stupid people just because they were not educated. Moreover, some workers at the bottom of society like a lorry driver, a nylon operative and others gave Williams some critical views and knowledge. They are parts of the creators of the culture. As conclusion, culture is not a privilege for the elite anymore.