这是我们在2017年为加拿大魁北克大学蒙特利尔分校的客户创作的一篇范文essay，以The Concept of Democracy in the Capital Volume I为例，这是一篇关于宗教religion的essay，开篇introduction首先介绍相关的背景内容和相关信息。
Marx's political thoughts have been very controversial, especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union and drastic changes in eastern Europe, and they are questioned by many liberals. Popper (2012), Hayek and Caldwell (2014) argue that Marxism is the enemy of democracy and the socialist theory refers to slavery and dictatorship.
Capital Volume I is a representative work, involving politics, philosophy and scientific socialism. This paper believes that in Capital Volume I, Marx conducts philosophical analyses on account of economic realities and political events. As a matter of fact, Marx explains his democratic theory systematically in Capital Volume I. This paper will focus on the concept of democracy in Capital Volume I based on the duality of labor, and discuss about the democratic ideas mainly from three aspects, including the origin of democracy, the relationship between democracy and socio-economic structures as well as the future of democracy.
Democracy originates from certain economic and social relationships. Through criticism on the capitalist system, Marx discusses about democratic problems from the perspective of economic structures. He points out that people will, of course, be involved in certain inevitable relations, which could not be changed by people’ wills. And the relations of production will be compatible with their material productivity in different stages. All productive relations together form the economic basis of the society. Therefore, production modes in material lives restrict people’s social, political and spiritual lives as a whole.
From the point of historical materialism, Marx believes the economic basis determines the superstructure. Democracy, as a part of the superstructure, is also based on the social production and economic structures. Because of the diverse material bases, different societies’ political natures are also distinctive. For example, the democratic systems in capitalistic and socialistic countries are quite different from each other. Just as Marx states that, the forms of laws and nations stem from material relations, which are explained in political economy. Therefore, the origin of democracy should be explored through the political economy, economic forms and civil societies.
Democracy is an effective way to discuss political problems. The identities as an individual and a social member could be united through democratic politics. All in all, democracy is a long-term and objective course of the historic movement. And it is philosophically based on the duality of labor, which is also the key to understand democratic politics. Besides that, democratic ideas are closely related to the social organism. On the basis of concepts like labor practice, productive forces, production relations, economic basis and the superstructure, Marx explicitly explains the conditions, processes and tendencies of democratic politics’ generation, development and transformation. In short, democracy stems from certain social and economic relations, it keeps positively reacting with economic and social structures, and it will take a long time to develop as well.